In the contemporary life sciences, a potential new development that has brewed for nearly forty years has gradually expanded from an initially marginal and sporadic state to its current status as the start of a new scientific synthetic direction, one with increasingly clear common concepts, solid experimental basis, and mature theoretical framework.
There have been some reviews or conclusions in previous scientific overviews and comments on this new biological trend, but there is no unified naming and interdisciplinary summarization, and there is no evaluation on the trend's historical position and heritage. In 2007, based on long-term collection, collation, and research from Brain & Ecology Comparative Group (BECG) under the lead of Winpen Hann, this trend was officially named neo-adaptationistic biology or adaptational biology in brief. Early in 2003, Winpen Hann had already confirmed the historical background and importance of this trend and started BECG in order to research this new biological direction.
Neo-adaptationism originated from the life-history and behavioral ecology forty years ago, mainly from the life-history and behavioral strategy, Then a new development in stress and resistance biology thirty years ago, later extended to the phenotypic plasticity biology twenty years ago. At the same time, pathophysiology also developed out of several new branches of damage resistance compensation, evolutionary pathology, and stress pathology. They appeared independently and shared a common developmental direction, and the results of decades of research on this development have proved that this trend is broadly applicable with powerful developmental potential and a strong evidence basis.
The core issue of evolutionary biology is its theoretical explanation of organismal adaptation. However, the traditional Darwinian theory and the later Modern Synthesis can only apply to the interspecific comparison method at the level of macrobiology, and thus the studies on the environmental adaptation of organic being are limited to the unit of species and subspecies. Nevertheless, when neo-adaptationism found a new kind of method of intraspecific comparison at the level of life history and physiology, BECG established a new theoretical system of intraspecific adaptability by a unit of individual and sub-individual to study its environmental suitability.
Therefore, the tentacles of the interpretation of traditional evolutionary biology cannot be touched into microphysiological levels, but the new adaptational biology can successfully allow its experiments and explanations to insert directly into molecular and cellular processes of adaptation. This trend and its theoretical development of neo-adaptationism are of great historical significance. Namely, it represents that the era of the third synthesis of biology, after the Darwinian theory and the Modern Synthesis, is coming.
In 2008, BECG, an independent team of transdisciplinary
scientists, released their preliminary report (PDF in Chinese) titled The Development of the Neo-adaptationistic Biology
. In 2009, Daosen's Press published the English version of The Development of the Neo-adaptationistic Biology
in Hong Kong. In the same year, the core theoretical monograph The Deep Structure of Life
(three volumes in Chinese from Daosen's Press, Hong Kong) was published officially. Later, in 2010, the applied theoretical works Deep Structure of Economy
(two volumes in Chinese from Daosen's Press) were also published in Hong Kong. In the meantime
, the concentrated monograph was published in the Journals of Frontier Science
in China, (the third issue in 2009). All of these works represented the first systemic theoretical summarization and synthesis on this new trend in the scientific community.
The discovery and understanding of the underlying two important applied fields in particular gained BECG's attention and generated a strong sense of mission.
Firstly, BECG is proud of the development of the deep structure theory. According to the studies of Winpen Hann and the group, introducing the interspecific unit concept into contemporary experimental biology will have great potential to solve the interpretation dilemma of physiological modulation mechanism in functional biological experiments. It is the most difficult challenge the modern life science experiments face: how to successfully interpret the experimental knowledge of cell and molecular levels into the analysis of phenotypic variable processes, such as an organism's behavior, movement, and physiology. This problem has been successively encountered at all levels and fields of life science (such as molecules, cells, tissue, etc.).
By summing up the experiences and lessons of previous studies of the physiological modulation mechanism (such as gene expression, metabolic network, neural encoding, etc.), Hann suggested that any functional process research at molecular and cellular levels, when they had finished extensive substantial analysis of fragments, could not go on to rely on the traditional model of route tracing experiment of functional biology. That's because the secrets of modulation were not hidden in the procedures, but in the connotative meaning of being designed of the procedures. That is to say, the essence of modulation research is not to investigate functional processes, but to explore the designing intentions of functions¡ªnamely the deep-structure problems.
From the systematical summary of Winpen Hann and BECG, the variety of new methods and understanding grown from the extraordinary ecological and biological experiments in the direction of neo-adaptationism have been comprehensively developed into a biological deep-structure experimental and analytical system. It is a major breakthrough of theoretical research, and also is an important turning point of the work of deep structure design ( DSD). After that, they began to try to gradually turn their focus from quondam theoretical study into a series of major applied projects¡¯ conceptual design of brain network, brain computer, molecular network, pathological deep structure and new mapping and math .
Since 2006, Winpen Hann led BECG to systematically rebuild the method of micro experiments and the analysis of biology, including the proposed ideas of deep structural analysis of genetic and molecular networks and deep structural analysis of the brain and super intelligence, and on this basis put forward the deep-structure experimental method and system of microbiology. These results have been published in their core theory work Deep Structure of Life (three volumes, 2009, Hong Kong, Chinese version). In 2012, the English simplified version has officially be released in this DSS series. They are Deep Structure Studies¢ñ: The Third Synthesis of Biology, Deep Structure Studies¢ò 2: New Experimental Biology and Deep Structure Studies ¢ó: Brain's Super Intelligence Analysis.
BECG is equally proud of the research of the biologicalization of economics. The studies by Winpen Hann and the group have proved that introducing deep-structure theory into contemporary economics will have great potential for solving and understanding the global ecological imbalances and environmental crisis encountered in the development of human civilization.
Winpen Hann and BECG compared and summarized the various bionomic strategies such as life-history strategy, behavior ecological strategy, and strategies in phenotypic plasticity, physiological resistance, and pathological compensatory, and subsequently created an idea that all strategies can be attributed into a single resource strategy. This can combine fully with the principle of deep-structure of organisms. It was a second important conceptual breakthrough.
Further, Winpen Hann put forward that according to this principle, biology can completely absorb economics into their biological system in advance
; namely, human economic behavior is indeed the performance of biological resources strategy. Human economic origin, development, and future trends can be completely understood when they have been brought into the evolutionary pedigree of biological resources strategy. Therefore, the modulation mechanism of the economic system is the issue of deep-structure of economy. This was another major breakthrough of BECG's applied theory studies.
BECG's studies have proved that only by incorporating human scientific and industrial development into the paradigm of life science can we find the causes and laws governing human civilization's development, and through the understanding of the causes and laws of biosphere evolution we can expound expressly the optimal route of the development of science and humanity in the future. At present, Hann with his team have finished applied research of the economic deep structure model (EDSM). They are making conceptual design of a new environmental protection project of ¡°greenency ecosphere¡±. This project provides a new ecological economic balance mechanism for the globe.
Since 2008, Winpen Hann led BECG in systematically researching and developing the work of biologicalization of economics, consist
the biological translat
ion of economics concepts system, the evolutionary crisis of dinosaurs' resource strategy, the doctrine of evolutionary pedigree of biological resources strategies, and the evolutionary crisis of human resource strategy etc. Moreover, the economic deep-structure experimental method and the Greenency Modulation Model have been developed based on the above basis. These results have been published in the second core theory works Deep Structure of Economy
(two volumes, 2010, Hong Kong Chinese version). The English version will be published in this series of DSS
. They are Deep Structure Studies¢ô: Dinosaurs' Resource Strategy Crisis
, Deep Structure Studies¢õ: the Biologicalization of Economics
, and Deep Structure Studies¢ö: Greenency-sphere of the Anthropocene
. We believe that these studies can offer new enlightenment and stimulate new inspiration for the professionals in the economic field.
Deep Structure Conceptual Designs
Proj. Title State