The concept of the Brain Computer, first proposed by the Russian scientist Vitali Valtsev, was used to indicate a new artificial intelligence ideal that is different from the principle of the existing computer. It is a kind of simulation engineering of an intelligent machine, which models the special link structure and the work mode of animal cerebral neurons and is based on the huge knowledge database of modern neural science.
Early in the first half of the twentieth century, some pioneer researchers had already tried to create artificial intelligence based on the model of spinal cord neurons. With the development of neural electrophysiology and neural molecular biology in the second half of the twentieth century, humans were able to solve a lot of the subtle mysteries of the minute structures and functional processes of nerves and brains. At the same time, in the actual application process of the existing computer, there was growing dissatisfaction with the limitations of "intelligence." Therefore, the desire to create a kind of super-intelligent machine based on the human brain structure and its functional characteristics became a strong force in technological innovation.
There are several well-known ongoing brain computer projects in the worldŁ®
One is the "Blue Brain" project of the Swiss Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL) led by Henry Markram. Their project plan is to analyze and identify the interconnectedness between varieties of neurons by slicing mouse brains, and plotting and translating them into computer codes based on the simulation run on a high-speed supercomputer. On this basis, they look forward to inputting the data about all the link characteristics among billions of nerve cells into a computer and making the computer fully replicate all the operating mechanisms of a biological brain in order to understand the biological brain's thinking and awareness through the actual operation of this "brain computer."
Another is the "CBM" project led by Hugo de Garis in his Brussels and Tokyo labs. His project is to design neural networks by genetic algorithms; the intelligent machines will have an evolvable hardware without any software. The neural network will develop from simple to complex in an evolvable circuit board. And each "artificial neuron" autonomously generates, links, and disappear, eventually becoming the optimal functional networkŁ®
There are other well-known plans, such as the "Hyper NEAT" project led by Jeff Kroon of the University of Michigan and the "Brain Box" programs under the leadership of David Leicester at the University of Manchester.
In 2003, Brain & Ecology Comparative Group began to discuss the intersection issues between neurology, ecology, and evolutionary biology; they had conducted systematic comparative research on animal neural evolutionary physiological ecology, and they successively put forward the concepts of neural ecological strategy, neural ecological coding and the brain deep structure and released a review, Four Dilemmas of Basic Research of Brain Science: Reflections and Comments, in the Life Science Forum of China in 2004. The English theoretical work The Brain's Super Intelligence Analysis was published in June, 2012.
In their theoretical study of brain deep structure, BECG have found the following:
There exists an unsolved core problem in all of the existing studies of the special link structure and working mode of neuronsŁ®What they are trying to find out is the functional structure of the brain, rather than the meaning structure of the brain. In the book The Deep Structure of Being, BECG elaborated the principle of meaning structure and named it "deep structure." Consequently, BECG's conclusion is that all of these simulated artificial intelligences obtained by the experiments and analysis of the functional structure of the brain will eventually fall into trouble because of the lack of an authentic meaning structureŁ®
The greatest significance of the development of brain deep-structure theory is that it provides a solid theory about brain vitastate structure for the development of super artificial intelligence experiments. Its fundamental principle is that the brainˇŻs neural system can be structurally analyzed by modularity of vitastates. We can establish the pedigree of the vitastate structure of the brain (PVSB) by the methods of vitastate comparison and testing of living organisms. On this basis, we can put up the decomposition and decipherment of the meaning unit of the brain synapses network and can eventually build a brain deep-structural map (BDM) of any animal brain. So the super-AI can be found and formed based on this set of BDMs.
Therefore, the planned super-artificial-intelligence experiment of theirs will be different from the past "brain computer" experiments. Its basic principle is to confirm that the neural modulations of every organism are all based on the deep-structure mechanism. Therefore, the new type of brain computer that was established on the basis of deep-structure mechanisms is named Deep Structrue Computer, or Deeps Brainputer.
The unique engineering solutions of Deeps Brainputer are:
1. to integrate abundant research results and data of intraspecific comparative biology, especially the existing experiments on the aspects of phenotypic plasticity, stress and resistance, evolutionary pathology, life-history strategy and behavioral ecology, and so on, and to establish the comparative measurement system of living organisms according to the unit of vitastate. The research method of intraspecific comparison by which we can find out the deep structure of life is the most effective way to unlock the secrets of the life modulation mechanisms; and
2. to develop the new experimental system of "neural vitastate," and regard this as the starting point of the meaning analysis of the brain nerve network, and to lead the vitastate comparison system into the decomposition and decipherment of the meaning unit of the brain synapses network. On this basis, we can test, improve, and build a model of brain modulation mechanisms by the meaning experiments. Eventually, we can establish the brain deep-structure map, which will lead to the engineering and construction of a new type of computerŁ®
One of the conceptual design projects is the "Brain-Computer Conceptual Design". In the preparatory research of the brain-computer project, they are researching an applied mathematics theory, "Brain Deep Structural Modulation: Synaptic Plexus Encoding Mechanism and Its Simulation Technology System."